The Weather Swamphan

Today, good weather for ducks – and swamphans!”


 

Weather Education
Measurements & Scales
A Disaster Supplies Shopping List
How to Help after…
About the Atmosphere
Cloud Formation and Types
Facts About Ozone
Heat Wave Safety Tips
Marine Warnings
National Safe Boating Week (’98)
Precip Intensity Estimation
Probility of Precipitation
Beaufort Scale
Conversion Tables
Mb (hPa) to Inches hg
Florida Forecast Zones
Heat Index
Thermodynamic Indices
Ultraviolet Index
French Ultraviolet Index
Weather Radio Freqs.
Weather Events
Florida Freeze, February 28 2002

A Disaster Supplies Shopping List
How to Help after…

“This list contains a sample food shopping list based on one family’s needs and tastes. It should be modified to match potential disasters in your area and your family’s needs. It also assumes that you have already developed a Family Emergency Plan. Information on how to do this is available from your local chapter of the American Red Cross.”

Subj:  What canned foods 2 get?         Section: Forum Help Center
From:  Gary Wilson              70550,2402     # 19352, 1 Reply   To:  Jackson R. Pearce        76015,2235     Date: 31-Jul-95 13:39 

Most disaster books just say keep a four day supply of food on hand. I find that when giving Disaster Education lectures that people also want an actual shopping list. So here’s a copy of what my own family keeps in two large totes with our camping supplies. All of the food can be eaten cold if need be, but one hot meal a day is great for morale. Modify it for your family’s tastes and circumstances:

A SAMPLE EMERGENCY SUPPLY KIT FOR A FAMILY OF FOUR

Designed to keep your family self-sufficient for four days until relief operations are effective. Mark each item with date of purchase.

Buy new food each year on your birthday and use last years supplies for regular meals.

DRY FOOD	
1	box	Saltine Crackers
5	Lb	Rice
1	Box	Granola Bars
1	box 	Potato Sticks
1	box	Instant Oatmeal
1	bag	M&M's
2	bags	Pre-sweetened Kool-aid
2	boxes	Macaroni & Cheese
2	boxes	Cup-a-soup
1	box	Raisins
2	boxes	Jello
1	jar	Instant Coffee
1	box	Tea
1	box	Sugar
1	jar	Creamer

CANNED GOODS	
2	cans	Pork & Beans
2	cans	White potatoes
4	cans	Corn
2	cans	Green beans
3	cans	Soup
2	cans	Spaghetti & meatballs
2	cans	Ravioli
3	cans	Tuna  fish
2	cans	Tic Tac Toes
1	can	Chili
2	cans	Stew
1	can	Pears
1	can	Fruit cocktail
1	can	Pineapple
1	can	Peaches
1	can	Applesauce
		
WATER	
2	2.5 Gal	Bottled Water

STAPLES	
1	each	Can opener
50	each	Paper Plates
50	each	Hot Cups
50	each	Plastic spoons
1	box	Aluminum Foil
1	roll 	Toilet paper
1	roll	Paper towels
1	roll	Masking tape
1	roll	Duct tape
6	Boxes	Matches
4	each	D Batteries
4	each	C Batteries
4	each	AA Batteries
2	each	Flashlights
1	each	Portable Radio
1	bottle	Clorox Bleach
1	each	Medicine Dropper
1	each	Sterno Stove
1	each	First Aid Kit
1	Box	Sanitary Napkins
1	Envelope
        $100.00 in $1 & $5's
		
CAMPING SUPPLIES	
4	each	Sleeping Bags
4	each	Camping mattress
1	each	Lantern
1	each	Camp Stove
                (If you don't have one, get a small Sterno stove)
1	each	Cook Kit
		
HOME REPAIR SUPPLIES	
4	each	4x8 Plywood
4	each	4x8 Tarps
200	each	10# & Roofing Nails
1	each	Hammer
4	each	Work Gloves

CLOTHING	
4	each	2 changes of Clothing
4	each	Toilet Kits
4	each	Towels
4	each	Sturdy Footwear

Good Luck and hope you only have to use it to avoid making a trip to 7-11.

Gary Wilson
NJ Capital Area Chapter, American Red Cross

About the Atmosphere

Atmosphere Basics

Composition of Gases in the Atmosphere

The air in our atmosphere is 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. The remaining 1% is other gases such as Argon, Carbon Dioxide, Neon, Helium, and others.

            Quick Breakdown of Gases in Atmosphere

                          By Volume         By Weight
--------------------------------------------------------
Nitrogen                   78.088%          75.527%
Oxygen                     20.949           23.143
Argon                       0.93             1.282
Carbon dioxide              0.03             0.0456
Others                      0.003            0.0024
--------------------------------------------------------

Vertical Structure

The atmosphere is classified into layers, or spheres with no sharp boundary between the air and space. There are four major layers — the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, and the thermosphere. A fifth layer is the exosphere but it is of little consequence.

The troposphere is the layer from the surface to an average altitude of about 7 miles. It contains three-fourths of the atmospheric mass and is where 99.9% of the weather occurs. It is characterized by an overall decrease of temperature with increasing altitude. The height of the troposphere fluxes with the seasons and latitude of earth. It can be about 20,000 feet (8km) at the poles to 65,000 feet (16km) at the equator.

The zone marking the end of the troposphere is the tropopause. This zone marks the end of the noticable temperature decrease with altitude. Above the tropopause lies the stratosphere. This layer is known for very little or no temperature change with height except for a slight warming trend near the top. The stratosphere and stratopause stretch above the troposphere and tropopause to a height of 50 km. It is here in this layer that intense interactions among radiative, dynamical, and chemical processes take place. The stratosphere is warmer than the upper troposphere due to an ozone layer that absorbs solar ultraviolet energy. It is this layer that is under a great deal of research and concern over the poles of the earth due to the thinning out of the ozone.

The mesosphere, 50 to 80 km above the Earth, has diminished ozone concentration and radiative cooling becomes more important. The temperature now begins to decline as you continue to go up in altitude. Temperatures fall to -70 degrees to -140 degrees Celsius. This is the layer that most meteors burn up in the atmosphere as a result of the compressional heating with the billions of gas particles found here.

The stratosphere and mesosphere are commonly known as the middle atmosphere. The mesopause above the mesosphere at about 80 km marks the outermost layer of the atmosphere.

In the thermosphere the temperatures again rises with temperatures as high at 2,000 degrees Celsius. The high temperatures are relative though as the gas molecules aren’t dense enough to transfer enough energy to register on a common thermometer. Radiation in this layer does cause the scattered air particles to become electrically charged. This is the layer in the lower thermosphere known as the ionosphere at 100-400 km. These ionized particles allow radio waves to bounce off of them and back to earth over the horizon. This layer also holds the ingredients for the aurora borealis for the Northern Hemisphere, and aurora australis in the Southern Hemisphere – the Northern Lights or Southern Lights. Excitation of the ionosphere by pulses of radiation from the sun allow the nighttime show to happen.

The exosphere about 500-1,000 km above the surface has only a few particles of gas. The temperatures can reach to 4,500 degrees Farenheit (2500 degrees C) during direct sunlight.

 

Cloud Formation and Types

CLOUD FORMATION

Clouds, nature’s fingerprint of the water cycle–the never ending cycle of water evaporation,
condensation and precipitation. Water at the earth’s surface gets heated and evaporates into
the atmosphere in the form of water vapor. Warm moist air gets lifted over a mountain. A large
area of surface air gets lifted due to a converging airmass. A front pushes in from the west
and lifts the warm air up into the atmosphere.

All of these mechanisms have a common thread of rising expanding air. The air cools as it rises
into the atmosphere. Air can hold less moisture at cooler temperatures. Condensation occurs,
changing water vapor to water droplets. Microscopic droplets of condensed water attach
themselves to tiny dust particles in the air. If the temperature is cold enough tiny ice particles will
form. These tiny water droplets or ice particles that have formed around dust particles become
visible to us in the form of clouds. Clouds are visible water droplets or ice particles in the air.

The types of clouds that you see when looking up in the sky depends on the weather conditions
that you are experiencing. Sometimes, clouds are beautiful to look at. On a sunny day you may
see clouds that resemble animals and other forms found in nature. Clouds can also look
frightening. A dark ominous sky might cause you to turn on your radio or The Weather Channel
to find out if severe weather is approaching.

Meteorologists, Farmers, Mariners, and other outdoor sensitive workers rely on reading the
clouds to determine conditions in the atmosphere. Some clouds form only in fair weather, while
others produce showers or thunderstorms when warm warm, humid air becomes saturated. Still
other types of clouds appear as a storm approaches. In the next sections we can take a look at
the many forms of clouds that exist, and the types of weather with which they are associated.

CLOUD TYPES (VERTICAL)

CUMULUS (Cu)
On a sunny day, it is common to see billowy cloud puffs that resemble cottonballs. These
are called cumulus clouds. Cumulus clouds grow in a vertical direction from the base (bottom)
up. “Cumulus” is a Latin word meaning heaps or piles. It is easy to see by looking at these
clouds how they got their name. Cumulus clouds begin to appear in the morning hours and
grow in a vertical direction throughout the day. The top of a cumulus cloud can easily reach
20,000 feet into the troposphere, depending on the amount of moisture in the air. Cumulus
clouds usually do not produce rain. However, under certain atmospheric conditions, these
clouds can develop into cumulonimbus clouds.

CUMULONIMBUS (Cb)
The word “nimbus” is Latin for rain. As the name suggests, cumulonimbus is a rain-producing
cloud. These clouds, often associated with thunderstorms, are sometimes referred to as
thunderheads. It is not uncommon in the American Midwest for the top of a cumulonimbus
to reach 40,000 feet into the troposphere. On rare occasions, a cumulonimbus cloud can
reach levels of 60,000 feet. In this unusual situation, a cumulonimbus reaches into the lower
levels of the stratosphere, where its top is blown off by forceful winds. Have you ever seen
a cumulonimbus whose top has been sheared off by the wind? Because its flat top resembles
a blacksmith’s anvil, it is called just that: an anvil top.

As a cumulonimbus grows, reaching higher into the troposphere, it encounters colder air. Some
of the water droplests that make up the cloud begin to freeze, turning into ice crystals. The ice
crystals and water droplets collide with one another causing friction. Friction causes electricity
within the cloud, which creates lightning. As a result, we experience thunderstorms.

CLOUD TYPES (HIGH LEVEL CLOUDS)
Bases above 6km, or 20,000 feet

CIRRUS (Ci)
Except for cumulonimbus clouds that build and occasionally reach high up into the atmosphere,
cirrus clouds are the highest clouds in the sky. White and wispy in appearance, their name is Latin
for hair curl. Since they resemble flowing hair, they are often referred to as “mares” tails. Cirrus
clouds are thin and commonly found at 20,000 to 30,000 feet up into the atmosphere. Because
the air is very cold, (below -25 degrees Celcius), at these levels, cirrus clouds are composed of
ice crystals.

Cirrus clouds may be the first sign that precipitation is approaching. Have you ever seen a ring
around the moon? The ring that you see is an optical phenomenon caused by moonlight reflecting
off the ice crystals of a cirrus cloud. Precipitation may occur within 36 to 48 hours of seeing a ring
around the moon.

CIRROCUMULUS (Cc)
The Latin word “cumulus” means heaps or piles. These high clouds 20,000 to 30,000 feet are thin,
white clouds with billows or ripples. They meet the same cold temperature regime as cirrus of -25
degrees Celcius and consist of ice crystals.

An increase in the cloud coverage of Cirrocumulus usually indicates an unstable atmosphere and
usually will lead to a chance of showers or thunderstorms in the summer and snow showers in the
winter if the air is cold enough.

CIRROSTRATUS (Cs)
The word “stratus” means sheetlike in Latin. Sometimes cirrus clouds descend to around 20,000
feet in the troposphere. They begin to form closer together, spreading out in a thick, sheetlike
appearance. Meteorologists call these clouds, as the name suggests, cirrostratus.

Because cirrostratus clouds form high in the troposphere, they are made up of ice crystals. They
are white or pale grey in appearance, and they indicate that precipitation may arrive within 24 hours.

CLOUD TYPES (MIDDLE LEVEL CLOUDS)
Bases above 2-6 km, or 6500-20,000 feet

ALTOCUMULUS (Ac)
The presence of atltocumulus clouds is often referred to as a “mackerel sky.” Made up of water
droplets, these are found between 6,000 and 20,000 feet in the troposphere.

“Altocumulus” is Latin meaning high heaps or piles. They are fair weather clouds. On rare occasions,
these clouds can develop into cumulonimbus clouds, and produce thunderstorms. White to grey in
color, altocumulus clouds are usually transparent enough to permit the sun to shine through them.

ALTOSTRATUS (As)
The first mid-level clouds to precede a storm system are altostratus clouds. “Alto” is the Latin
word for high. Altostratus means high, spread out clouds. Found at levels of 15,000 to 20,000 feet,
these clouds are sometimes made up of ice crystals, but more often than not they consist of
water droplets.

Altostratus are grey, thick clouds through which the sun usually does not shine. Precipitation can
fall from these clouds, but it usually evaporates before it hits the ground. Precipitation may occur
within six hours after altostratus clouds first appear in the sky.

CLOUD TYPES (LOW LEVEL CLOUDS)
Bases below 2 km, or 6500 feet

NIMBOSTRATUS (Ns)
“Nimbostratus” is Latin for “speard out rain clouds.” They are a smooth layer of grey clouds found
between 3,000 and 10,000 feet in the troposphere. Made up of water droplets, they produce
rain. Sometimes, the form of a nimbostratus cloud cannot be seen because precipitation is falling from
it. Nimbostratus clouds can also be snow producers when the temperatures are cold enough it will
contain ice particles instead of water droplets.

STRATUS (St)
“Stratus” is Latin for sheets. These sheetlike clouds are the most common of all low level clouds. Stratus
clouds are thick and grey, and are nevere any higher than 5,000 feet up above the earth’s surface. They
are formed by condensation occuring close to the ground, and often extend all the way down to
ground level in the form of fog. Fog is an example of a stratus cloud.

Stratus clouds are usually found on overcast days. Although they can produce drizzle or tiny snowflakes,
they never produce heavy precipitation. Clouds producing heavy precipitation, however, may exist above
a layer of stratus clouds.

STRATOCUMULUS (Sc)
“Stratocumulus” is Latin for “piled in sheets.” They are low hanging, lumpy clouds, generally found
below 6,000 feet in the troposphere. Stratocumulus clouds are light or dark grey in color, depending
on the amount of sunlight that is passing through them.

Like all other low level clouds, stratocumulus clouds are made up of water droplets. They are
usually seen in the sky after a storm has passed by. Occasionally, stratocumulus clouds can produce
light rain or snow showers.

Facts About Ozone

……………FACTS ABOUT OZONE……………
Ground-level ozone levels above 120 ppb (parts per billion) over one hour…and 80 ppb over eight hours are generally considered to be unhealthful. Ground-level ozone is the main ingredient in smog. In the presence of sunlight and heat, gaseous air pollutants react to produce ground-level ozone smog. These pollutants have many sources, such as motor vehicles, industrial smokestacks, gas stations, small gas powered engines, farm and construction equipment, oil-based paints, and household cleaning solvents. Stagnant weather conditions…which include high pressure…low winds…and lower than normal humidity are often associated with hazy skies.

Weather conditions that are favorable for the formation of high concentrations of ground-level ozone include:

1. Light winds and early morning shallow mixing heights…both of which cause man made and natural emissions to accumulate rather than be dispersed.

2. Abundant sunshine with mild temperatures…if higher than normal concentrations of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides develop in the air…they will…in response to sunlight…react to produce high concentrations of ozone.

Elevated concentrations of ozone can act as a lung irritant. Individuals with chronic lung disease…such as asthma and
emphysema…the elderly and small children are particualrly sensitive to ozone and should attempt to avoid exposure.

Minimizing air polluting activities may reduce the potential for higher ozone readings. Take the following actions if possible…

1. Use alternative transportation modes to minimize the use of automobiles and trucks. Combine errands.
2. Do your fueling…shopping…lawncare and laundry…both washing and drying after 700 PM.
3. Set your thermostat higher…warmer.
4. Turn fewer lights on and turn them off when not in use.
5. Stay indoors as much as possible.

THINGS NOT TO DO:

1. Don’t do lawn and gardening chores that use gasoline powered equipment.
2. Don’t use oil-based paints and solvents.
3. Don’t use products that release fumes or evaporate easily. If it smells strong, it’s probably wrong. Things like paint strippers and varnish…even things like fingernail polish remover.
4. Don’t refuel. If you must, do it after dark and don’t fill the tank completely.
5. Don’t exercise outdoors.

Symptoms of short-term exposure to ozone may include sore throat… chest pain…breathing difficulty…coughing and headaches. Persons most sensitive to the effects of ozone are individuals who have pre-existing respiratory conditions…heart conditions…outdoor workers…persons who exercise outdoors and children. The Department recommends that these people limit outdoor activity during peak ozone hours…1100 AM to 700 PM.

Heat Wave Safety Tips

HEAT WAVE SAFETY TIPS and the Heat Index
(source: National Weather Serivce Little Rock, AR; Chicago, IL and Birmingham, AL)

There is no official definition of a “heat wave”. A “heat wave” is generally considered to be several consecutive days of higher than normal high temperatures during the late spring…summer…or early fall…generally in the May to October time frame.

What temperature constitutrs a “heat wave” varies in different parts of the country. In most of the north central and northeastern United States…normal high temperatures in the summer are in the lower to mid 80s. In those areas…several consecutive days of 90 degrees or higher is considered to be a “heat wave”. In Arkansas…high temperatures are normally in the lower 90s from late June through late August so a few consecutive days of highs in the lower 90s is not unusual. It takes several days of highs in the upper 90s or temperatures reaching 100 degrees or more to be considered a “heat wave” by most. In the desert southwest…high temperatures normally exceed 100 degrees during the summer…so higher temperatures are required to be considered a “heat wave” in those areas.

According to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control…on average 384 people die from heat every year. This is more than the deaths caused by floods (135)…lightning (85)…tornadoes (73) and hurricanes (25) combined! Heat can be especially deadli in large urban areas which can become heat islands. Brick buildings…asphalt streets and tar roofs store heat and radiate it like a slow burning furnace. Temperatures can be several degrees hotter in the city than in nearby suburbs and rural areas. The elderly…infants and young children…and people with chronic health problems are most at risk. Of the 525 heat related deaths in Chicago in the July 1995 heat wave…73 percent were elderly.

The body cools itself by sweating. The evaporation of moisture has a cooling effect. High humidity reduces the evaporation and hinders the bodys effort to cool itself. The heat index is an apparent temperature or a measure of how it feels when temperature and humidity are combined. It is the result of biometeorological studies and takes into account body size…core and body surface temperatures…clothing…the skins resistance to heat and moisture transfer away from the body. The heat index assumes an average-size adult with clothing in the shade with a 5 MPH wind. Being in the full sun or in an area with little air movement can increase the apparent temperature. The dew point temperature is a much more useful measure of the moisture content of the atmosphere than the commonly used relative humidity. During summer in Illinois dewpoints in the 50s are generally comfortable…and most people begun to feel the humidity when dewpoints are in the 60s. Dewpoints in the 70s are rare and cause significant discomfort. During the peak of the July 1995 heat wave dewpoints were in the upper 70s to lower 80s…unprecedented in the Chicago area.

To find the heat index…look at the heat index chart. As an example…if the air temperature is 95 degrees fahrenheit (found at the top of the table) and the RH is 55% (found on the left side of the table)…the heat index – or how hot it really feels – is 110 degrees fahrenheit. This is at the intersection of the 95 F row and the 55% column.

IMPORTANT: Since heat index values were devised for shady…light wind conditions…exposure to full sunshine can increase heat index values by up to 15 degrees fahrenheit.

NOTE: The index is an apparent temperature and is broken down into 4 categories. The categories are based on how severe the threat is to your health. Below is a list of the categories:

CATEGORY 1 HEAT INDEX 130 DEGREES OR HIGHER.
Heat or sunstroke highly likely
with continued exposure.

CATEGORY 2 HEAT INDEX 105 TO 130 DEGREES.
                          Sunstroke…heat cramps…or heat exhaustion likely and heatstroke possible
with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity.

CATEGORY 3 HEAT INDEX 90 TO 105 DEGREES.
                          Sunstroke…heat cramps and exhaustion possible
with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity.

CATEGORY 4 HEAT INDEX 80 TO 90 DEGREES.
                          Fatigue possible
with prolinged exposure and/or physical activity.

 

…Safety Precautions For Heat…

1. Slow down. Strenuous activity should be reduced…eliminated…or rescheduled to the coolest time of the day. People at risk should stay in the coolest available place…not necessarily indoors.

2. Wear loose-fitting…lightweight…and light-colored clothing.

3. Reduce the intake of foods…like protiens…that increase metabolic heat production and increase water loss.

4. Drink plenty of water or other non-alcoholic fluids…even if you do not feel thirsty. However…people who have epilepsy…heart disease…kidney disease…liver disease…or who are on a fluid restrictive diet…or who have a fluid retention problem…should check with a doctor before increasing fluid consumption.

5. Do not drink alcoholic beverages.

6. Do not take salt tablets unless specidied by a physician.

7. Spend more time in an air conditioned place. If you do not have an air conditioner…try a movie or a shopping mall. Only 2 hours a day in an air conditioned space can significantly reduce the risk of heat related illness.

8. Do not get too much sun. Especially protect small children from the sun.

9. If you don’t have air conditioning…keep shades drawn and blinds closed but windows open slightly…take cool baths or showers and use cool wet towels…and avoid using the oven.

***DO NOT LEAVE CHILDREN OR PETS IN A CLOSED VEHICLE..EVEN FOR A FEW MINUTES! TEMPERATURES INSIDE A CLOSED VEHICLE CAN REACH 140-190 DEGREES WITHIN 30 MINUTES ON A HOT SUNNY DAY.***

…Heat Disorder Symptoms…

SUNBURN…Redness and pain. In severe cases…swelling of skin…blisters…fever…headache.

HEAT CRAMPS…Painful spasms usually in leg muscles or abdomen…heavy sweating.

HEAT EXHAUSTION…Heavy sweating…weakness…skin cold pale and clammy. Thin and feeble pulse. Normal temperature possible. Fainting. Vomiting.

HEAT STROKE…High body temperature…106 degrees or higher. Hot dry skin. Rapid and strong pulse. Possible unconsciousness.

…First Aid…

HEAT CRAMPS…Firm pressure on cramping muscle or gentle massage. Give sips of salt water…one teaspoon per glass…every 15 minutes for one hour.

HEAT EXHAUSTION…Get victim out of sun. Lie down and loosen clothing. Apply cool wet cloths. Fan or move victim to air conditioned room. Sips of salt water as above. If vomiting continues…seek immediate medical attention.

HEAT STROKE…Severe medical emergency. Get emergency medical help or get victim to a hospital. Delay can be fatal. Move victim to cooler area. Reduce body temperature with cold bath or sponging. Remove clothing. Use fans and air conditioners. Do not give fluids.

…Who Is At Risk?…

The elderly…small children…chronic invalids…people on certain medications…especially tranquilizers and anticholinergics. People with weight and alcohol problems are particularly susceptible to heat reactions.

…Understanding The Difference Between Relative Humitity And Dew Point…

Both relative humidity and dew point measure the amount of moisture or water vapor in the air. However…relative humidity…is exactly what its name implies…its relative…it depends on the air temperature.

For instance…say the morning temperature was 65 degrees and the relative humidity was 100 percent…the temperature then climbed to 90 degrees in the afternoon…but the amount of moisture in the air remained the same. Well…the relative humidity with a temperature of 90 degrees…and the same amount of moisture in the air…yields a relative humidity that is now…43 percent.

So…relative humidity is dependant on the air temperature. Higher air temperatures can hold more moisture…resulting in lower relative humidities…although the actual amount of moisture in the air does not change.

A better way of determining the amount of moisture in the air is by using the dew point… the dew point is a more meaningful and direct measure of the moisture content in the air. Dew point is the tehperature at which the air would have to be cooled in orede to reach saturation…or 100 percent humidity. The higher the dew point…the more moisture in the air.

Here is an example comparing both relative humidity and dew point…

CASE #1 Air Temperature = 95 DEGREES Dew Point = 75 DEGREES
Results in a relative humidity of 50 percent.

CASE #2 Air Temperature = 75 DEGREES Dew Point = 55 DEGREES
Results in a relative humidity of 50 percent.

In this example…the relative humidities are the same…but there is significantly more moisture in case #1.

                         HEAT INDEX CHART

                        AIR TEMPERATURE (F)

        70  75  80  85  90  95  100 105 110  115  120  125  130

    0   64  69  73  78  83  87  91  95  99   103  107  111  117
    5   64  69  74  79  84  88  93  97  102  107  111  116  122
R   10  65  70  75  80  85  90  95  100 105  111  116  123  131
E   15  65  71  76  81  86  91  97  102 108  115  123  131
L   20  66  72  77  82  87  93  99  105 112  120  130  141
A   25  66  72  77  83  88  94  101 109 117  127  139
T   30  67  73  78  84  90  96  104 113 123  135  148
I   35  67  73  79  85  91  98  107 118 130  143
V   40  68  74  79  86  93  101 110 123 137  151
E   45  68  74  80  87  95  104 115 129 143
    50  69  75  81  88  96  107 120 135 150
H   55  69  75  81  89  98  110 126 142
U   60  70  76  82  90  100 114 132 149
M   65  70  76  83  91  102 119 138
I   70  70  77  85  93  106 124 144
D   75  70  77  86  95  109 130
I   80  71  78  86  97  113 136
T   85  71  78  87  99  117
Y   90  71  79  88  102 122
    95  71  79  89  105
(%) 100 72  80  91  108

Another way to determine the heat index is by using the air temperature and the dew point…

                           DEW POINT (F)
          35   40   45   50   55   60   65   70   75   80   85
AIR        
TEMP (F)
  75      74   75   76   77   77   78   78   79   80
  80      77   78   78   79   80   81   82   84   86   90
  85      81   81   82   83   84   86   87   90   93   98  106
  90      85   85   86   87   89   91   93   96  101  107  115
  95      89   90   91   92   94   96   99  103  108  115  124
 100      94   95   96   98  100  102  105  109  115  122  132
 105      99  100  101  103  105  107  111  116  122  129  139
 110     104  105  107  108  111  113  117  121  128  136  146
 115     109  110  111  113  116  118  123  128  134  141  153

The following equation approximates the heat index. There is a +-1.3 degree F error using this equation.

HI = -42.379 + 2.04901523*T + 10.14333127*R - 0.22475541*T*R
     - 0.00683783*T2 - 0.05481717*R2 + 0.00122874*T2*R
     + 0.00085282*T*R2 - 0.00000199*T2*R2

Where…

  T  -> Air Temperature
  T2 -> Air Temperature Squared
  R  -> Relative humidity
  R2 -> Relative Humidity squared
  *  -> Multiply (IE. 2*5 = 10)

Marine Warnings

CAUTION ON AREA LAKES – Sustained winds of 15 to 25 MPH with higher gusts possible.

WIND ADVISORY – Observed or forecast sustained winds of at least 25 MPH.

HIGH WIND WATCH – Forecast winds of 58 MPH or higher…or sustained winds of at least 40 MPH for an hour or more.

SMALL CRAFT ADVISORIES – Observed or forecast winds of 18 to 33 kots. Small Craft Advisories may also be issued for hazardous sea conditions or lower wind speeds that may affect small craft operations. Small Craft Advisories are issued up to 12 hours ahead of conditions.

GALE WARNING – Observed or forecast winds of 34 to 47 knots. Gale Warnings are issued up to 24 hours in advance of these expected conditions.

STORM WARNING – Observed or forecast winds of 48 knots or greater. Storm Warnings are issued up to 24 hours in advance of these expected conditions.

SPECIAL MARINE WARNING – Observed or forecast winds of 34 knots or more associated with a squall or thunderstorm and expected to last for 2 hours or less. Special Marine Warnings may also be issued for waterspouts and significant wind shifts.

Winds in the 15 to 25 MPH range can produce waves that can be hazardous…especially for smaller craft. Also…all thunderstorms have downdrafts which at timec can exceed 100 MPH. These winds can be quite sudden and produce high waves in a very short time frame.

National Safe Boating Week (’98)

PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE BINGHAMTON NY
800 AM EDT SAT MAY 23 1998
 
...1998 NATIONAL SAFE BOATING WEEK...
 
NATIONAL SAFE BOATING WEEK CONTINUES WITH A FEW LAWS AND REMINDERS TO
CONSIDER BEFORE VENTURING OUT ON THE WATER.
 
NEARLY EVERY STATE IN THE UNITED STATES HAS ADOPTED VARIOUS MANDATES
REQUIRING THE WEARING OF PERSONAL FLOTATION DEVICES.
 
NEW YORK STATE REQUIRES THAT CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF 12 ON A BOAT
LESS THAN 65 FEET LONG...UNLESS IN AN ENCLOSED CABIN...WEAR A LIFE
JACKET. THE LAW ALSO STATES THAT PERSONAL WATER CRAFT OPERATORS AND
SKIERS MUST WEAR A LIFE JACKET.
 
PENNSYLVANIA REQUIRES THAT ALL PERSONS OPERATING A PERSONAL WATER
CRAFT...WATER SKIERS...SAILBOARDS...AND CHILDREN 12 YEARS OF AGE OR
YOUNGER WEAR A LIFE JACKET.
 
THESE ARE ONLY A FEW OF THE REGULATIONS REQUIRED BY NEW YORK AND
PENNSYLVANIA. FOR A COMPLETE LIST OF PERSONAL FLOTATION DEVICE WEARING
REQUIREMENTS IN YOUR STATE...CONTACT YOUR STATE BOATING LAW
ADMINISTRATOR/S OFFICE.  FOR BOAT OPERATORS IN CANADIAN
WATERS...CONTACT THE CANADIAN GOVERNMENT FOR MORE INFORMATION
CONCERNING THE LAWS OF WEARING PERSONAL FLOTATION DEVICES.
 
BOATING SAFETY INCLUDES HAVING A SAFE BOAT.  CONTACT YOUR LOCAL BOATING
LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICE OR THE U.S. COAST GUARD AUXILIARY AND ASK HOW
YOU CAN GET A FREE BOAT SAFETY EXAMINATION WHICH INCLUDES THE EQUIPMENT
REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR SIZE AND TYPE OF BOAT.
 
HERE ARE THE PHONE NUMBERS FOR THE STATE BOATING LAW ADMINISTRATORS...
 
IN NEW YORK THE TELEPHONE NUMBER IS...518-474-0445 AND THE FAX NUMBER
IS...518-486-7378.
 
IN PENNSYLVANIA THE TELEPHONE NUMBER IS...717-657-4538 AND THE FAX
NUMBER IS...717-657-4549.
  
IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS ON BOATING SAFETY...PLEASE CONTACT THE UNITED
STATES COAST GUARD INFOLINE AT 1-800-368-5647.  BE SURE TO STAY TUNED
TO NOAA WEATHER RADIO TOMORROW FOR A RECAP OF THE SAFETY TIPS DISCUSSED
DURING THE PAST WEEK. BOATING CAN BE FUN AND ENJOYABLE IF SAFETY IS IN
MIND.
  
LOMBARDY
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT...NATIONAL SAFE BOATING WEEK
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE GRAY ME
405 AM EDT MON MAY 18 1998
 
...PLEASE JOIN THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN OBSERVING NATIONAL SAFE
BOATING WEEK...MAY 16TH THROUGH MAY 22ND...
 
THE FOLLOWING ARE SOME SIMPLE BUT IMPORTANT WEATHER TIPS THAT WILL MAKE
YOUR BOATING SAFE AND MORE ENJOYABLE.
 
...PLAN AHEAD..
SEVERAL DAYS AHEAD OF TIME START LISTENING FOR THE NATIONAL WEATHER
SERVICE 5 DAY FORECASTS ON NOAA WEATHER RADIO...OR YOUR LOCAL TV OR
RADIO STATION. THE FORECASTS GIVE GENERAL INFORMATION TO HELP YOU
DECIDE WHETHER OR NOT TO CONTINUE MAKING PLANS.
 
...BEFORE SETTING OUT...
PAY CLOSE ATTENTION TO THE DETAILED MARINE WEATHER FORECAST ON NOAA
WEATHER RADIO OR YOUR FAVORITE MEDIA OUTLET. TAKE NOTE OF SMALL CRAFT
ADVISORIES OR GALE OR STORM WARNINGS IN THE FORECASTS. THE ADVISORIES
AND WARNINGS GIVE MARINERS TIME TO TAKE ACTION TO PROTECT LIFE AND
PROPERTY.
 
...AFTER SETTING OUT...
STAY TUNED TO NOAA WEATHER RADIO. CHANGES IN THE WEATHER OCCUR OUT OF
YOUR SIGHT AND MAY BE HEADED YOUR WAY. UPDATED WARNINGS AND FORECASTS
ARE AIRED IMMEDIATELY ON NOAA WEATHER RADIO...ALERTING YOU TO CHANGES
THAT MAY REQUIRE ACTIONS ON YOUR PART.
 
REMEMBER...CHECK THE LATEST WEATHER CONDITIONS AND FORECASTS OFTEN
BEFORE YOU HEAD OUT TO THE WATER...AND WHILE YOU ARE AFLOAT. THE MORE
WEATHER INFORMATION YOU HAVE...THE BETTER PREPARED YOU WILL BE
THROUGHOUT THE BOATING SEASON.
 
IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO PARTICIPATE IN A MARINE SURVEY BEING CONDUCTED BY
THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN GRAY MAINE...PLEASE SEND A POSTCARD TO 
 
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE
1 WEATHER LANE
P.O. BOX 1208
GRAY ME 04039-1208
 
OR...DROP US AN E-MAIL. ADDRESS THE E-MAIL TO 
 
[email protected]
 
HAYES
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DETROIT/PONTIAC MI
745 AM EDT MON MAY 18 1998
 
...MAY 16TH THROUGH THE 22ND IS NATIONAL SAFE BOATING WEEK...
 
MAY 16TH THROUGH THE 22ND IS NATIONAL SAFE BOATING WEEK.  WEATHER
CAN MAKE FOR AN ENJOYABLE BOATING EXPERIENCE... ALTHOUGH THE
SUDDEN EMERGENCE OF DARK CLOUDS... GUSTY WINDS... AND LIGHTNING CAN
TURN A DAYS PLEASURE INTO A TIME OF DISTRESS.  DURING NATIONAL SAFE
BOATING WEEK...THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE WILL GIVE SOME TIPS... AS
PREPARED BY THE NATIONAL SAFE BOATING COUNCIL... ON HOW TO KEEP YOUR
PLEASURE AND SAFETY TO A MAXIMUM.
 
DEFINITIONS OF ADVISORIES AND WARNINGS...
 
SMALL CRAFT ADVISORIES... OBSERVED FOR FORECAST WINDS OF 18 TO
  33 KNOTS.  SMALL CRAFT ADVISORIES MAY ALSO BE ISSUED FOR
  HAZARDOUS SEA CONDITIONS OR LOWER WIND SPEEDS THAT MAY AFFECT
  SMALL CRAFT OPERATIONS.  SMALL CRAFT ADVISORIES ARE ISSUED UP
  TO 12 HOURS AHEAD OF CONDITIONS.
 
GALE WARNING... OBSERVED OR FORECAST WINDS OF 34 TO 47 KNOTS.
  GALE WARNINGS ARE ISSUED UP TO 24 HOURS IN ADVANCE OF THESE
  EXPECTED CONDITIONS.
 
STORM WARNING... OBSERVED OR FORECAST WINDS OF 48 KNOTS OR
  GREATER.  STORM WARNINGS ARE ISSUED UP TO 24 HOURS IN ADVANCE
  OF THESE EXPECTED CONDITIONS.
 
SPECIAL MARINE WARNING... OBSERVED OR FORECAST WINDS OF 34 KNOTS
  OR MORE ASSOCIATED WITH A SQUALL OR THUNDERSTORM AND EXPECTED
  TO LAST FOR 2 HOURS OR LESS. SPECIAL MARINE WARNINGS MAY ALSO BE
  ISSUED FOR WATERSPOUTS AND SIGNIFICANT WIND SHIFTS.
 
WHAT DOES A SMART BOATER DO WHEN A SMALL CRAFT ADVISORY IS IN
EFFECT?  THE NATIONAL SAFE BOATING COUNCIL ADVISES BOATERS TO
REMAIN ASHORE.  IF YOU ARE OUT ON THE WATER AND A STORM SUDDENLY
BLOWS UP... THE COUNCIL RECOMMENDS THAT YOU HEAD FOR THE NEAREST
SHELTERED SHORE. REDUCE YOUR SPEED AND HAVE PASSENGERS SIT IN THE
LOWEST PART OF THE BOAT NEAR THE CENTERLINE.  KEEP THE BOAT
HEADED INTO THE WIND AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE.
 
BOATERS... WHAT ABOUT NAVIGATION?  DO YOU HAVE THE NOAA NATIONAL
OCEAN SURVEY CHARTS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS COVERING YOUR PART OF
COASTAL OR GREAT LAKES WATERS?  CHECK YOUR LOCAL MARINA FOR
INFORMATION ON HOW AND WHERE TO GET THESE AND OTHER ESSENTIAL
AIDS TO NAVIGATION.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE SAN JUAN PR
1030 AM AST SUN MAY 17 1998
 
...THIS WEEK IS DESIGNATED AS NATIONAL SAFE BOATING WEEK...
 
SMART BOATING BEGINS WITH MAKING SAFETY THE FIRST PRIORITY OF
EVERY PILOT AND PASSENGER.  AWARENESS IS A BIG KEY IN HELPING TO
SAVE  LIVES AND PROPERTY.  IT HELPS PEOPLE TO MAKE INTELLIGENT
DECISIONS AND TO TAKE ACTIONS BEFORE CONDITIONS CLOSE IN.  THE
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE WILL AID IN AWARENESS THIS WEEK BY
ISSUING DAILY PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENTS ON SAFE BOATING.
 
THE NATIONAL SAFE BOATING COUNCIL URGES BOATERS TO LISTEN TO THE
LATEST WEATHER FORECAST BEFORE LEAVING SHORE...KNOW BEFORE YOU
GO. WHEN YOU ARE OUT ON THE WATER...KEEP YOUR EAR ON THE RADIO AND
YOUR EYE TO THE SKY. REMEMBER...OUT ON THE WATER...A STORM CAN BE MORE
THAN AN INCONVENIENCE... IT CAN CAPSIZE YOUR BOAT AND THREATEN
YOUR LIFE.  YOU SHOULD CHECK THE FORECASTS BEFORE YOU LEAVE SHORE
AND IF IT IS SAFE TO VENTURE OUT...KEEP YOUR RADIO ON AND WATCH
THE SKY FOR SIGNS OF STORMS ON THE HORIZON.
 
RM
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE SAN JUAN PR
830 AM AST MON MAY 18 1998
 
...THIS WEEK IS DESIGNATED AS NATIONAL SAFE BOATING WEEK...
 
SMART BOATING BEGINS WITH MAKING SAFETY THE FIRST PRIORITY OF EVERY
PILOT AND PASSENGER.  AWARENESS IS A BIG KEY IN HELPING TO SAVE LIVES
AND PROPERTY.  IT HELPS PEOPLE TO MAKE INTELLIGENT DECISIONS AND TO
TAKE ACTIONS BEFORE CONDITIONS CLOSE IN.  THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE
WILL AID IN AWARENESS THIS WEEK BY ISSUING DAILY PUBLIC INFORMATION
STATEMENTS ON SAFE BOATING.
 
TODAYS TOPIC IS FLOAT PLANS...
 
THE NATIONAL SAFE BOATING COUNCIL URGES BOATERS THAT BEFORE YOU GO OUT
IN YOUR BOAT...BE SURE THAT SOMEONE ASHORE KNOWS YOU ARE GOING AND
WHEN YOU EXPECT TO RETURN.
 
BOATERS ARE URGED TO FILE A FLOAT PLAN...A SIMPLE DESCRIPTION OF YOUR
BOAT...WHERE YOU ARE PLANNING TO GO AND WHEN YOU ARE EXPECTED TO
RETURN.  LEAVE THIS PLAN WITH YOUR MARINA...A FRIEND OR NEIGHBOR.  IF
YOU DO NOT RETURN AS PLANNED...SEARCHERS WILL KNOW WHERE TO LOOK.
 
GOVERNMENT AND VOLUNTEER RESCUERS HELP THOUSANDS OF BOATERS EVERY
YEAR.  THEIR WORK IS MADE EASIER WHEN THEY KNOW WHERE TO LOOK FOR A
MISSING BOAT.  KNOW BEFORE YOU GO...AND TELL A FRIEND.
 
REMEMBER..."BOAT SMART FROM THE START. WEAR YOUR LIFE JACKET!"
 
RM
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE FORT WORTH TX
135 PM CDT MON MAY 18 1998
 
...MAY 16TH  THROUGH THE 22ND IS NATIONAL SAFE BOATING WEEK...
 
BOATERS ACROSS NORTH TEXAS ARE URGED TO BE PREPARED TO FOLLOW
PROPER SAFETY BOATING RULES...KNOW PRESENT AND FORECAST WEATHER
CONDITIONS... AND ALWAYS WEAR LIFE JACKETS.
 
THE FOLLOWING ARE SOME DEFINITIONS FROM THE NATIONAL WEATHER
SERVICE IN FORT WORTH THAT BOATERS SHOULD KNOW:
 
CAUTION ON AREA LAKES - SUSTAINED WINDS OF 15 TO 25 MPH WITH HIGHER
GUSTS POSSIBLE.
 
WIND ADVISORY - OBSERVED OR FORECAST SUSTAINED WINDS OF AT LEAST 25
MPH.
 
HIGH WIND WATCH - FORECAST WINDS OF 58 MPH OR HIGHER...OR SUSTAINED
WINDS OF AT LEAST 40 MPH FOR AN HOUR OR MORE.
 
WINDS IN THE 15 TO 25 MPH RANGE CAN PRODUCE WAVES THAT CAN BE
HAZARDOUS...ESPECIALLY FOR SMALLER CRAFT.  ALSO...ALL THUNDERSTORMS
HAVE DOWNDRAFTS WHICH AT TIMES CAN EXCEED 100 MPH.  THESE WINDS CAN
BE QUITE SUDDEN AND PRODUCE HIGH WAVES IN A VERY SHORT TIME FRAME.
 
LIGHTNING IS A PARTICULAR HAZARD FOR BOATERS.  IF LIGHTNING IS
OBSERVED OR THUNDER IS HEARD...BOATERS SHOULD HEAD TO SHORE
IMMEDIATELY AND SEEK SAFE REFUGE IN THEIR VEHICLE OR STURDY
STRUCTURE.  IF THIS IS NOT POSSIBLE...HEAD TO SHORE...GET OUT OF THE
BOAT AND CROUCH DOWN ON THE BALLS OF YOUR FEET WITH YOUR HANDS ON
YOUR KNEES.  AT ALL COSTS...DO NOT REMAIN IN YOUR BOAT ON OPEN
WATER.
 
IF WITHIN RANGE OF NOAA WEATHER RADIO BROADCASTS...BOATERS ARE
URGED TO KEEP A PORTABLE WEATHER RADIO ON HAND.  THIS IS ESPECIALLY
IMPORTANT FOR RAPIDLY CHANGING WEATHER CONDITIONS OR IF
THUNDERSTORMS ARE EXPECTED TO DEVELOP.
 
PLAN AHEAD BY  KNOWING THE WEATHER FORECAST BEFORE YOU HEAD TO THE
LAKE...AND MONITOR CONDITIONS WHILE YOU ARE BOATING.
 
AND FINALLY...ALWAYS WEAR A LIFE JACKET WHILE IN A BOAT.  RECENT
STATISTICS SHOW THAT APPROXIMATELY 88 PERCENT OF DROWNED BOATERS
WERE NOT WEARING LIFE JACKETS.
 
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND ON THE INTERNET FROM THE
NATIONAL SAFE BOATING COUNCIL AT:
 
WWW.USCGBOATING.ORG/NSBC/
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE BINGHAMTON NY
900 AM EDT TUE MAY 19 1998
 
...1998 NATIONAL SAFE BOATING WEEK...
 
NATIONAL SAFE BOATING WEEK CONTINUES WITH A FEW WORDS ON WHAT YOU
SHOULD KNOW ABOUT LIFE JACKETS AND WHY.
 
THE TERMS LIFE JACKET AND PERSONAL FLOTATION DEVICE ARE USED TO MEAN
THE SAME THING.  THE TERM PERSONAL FLOTATION DEVICE OR PFD IS THE
OFFICIAL TERM USED BY THE COAST GUARD...NATIONAL BOATING ORGANIZATIONS
...AND MOST STATES.  THE NATIONAL SAFE BOATING CAMPAIGN IS INTENDED TO
GET THE BOATING COMMUNITY TO BOAT SMART FROM THE START AND WEAR THEIR
LIFE JACKETS AND NOT NECESSARILY TO CHANGE THEIR VOCABULARY.
 
THE MAIN CAUSE OF FATAL SMALL-BOAT ACCIDENTS IS CAPSIZINGS AND FALLS
OVERBOARD.  IT IS UNFORTUNATE...BUT MANY DEATHS FROM THESE ACCIDENTS
COULD HAVE BEEN PREVENTED IF THE BOATERS HAD WORN THEIR PERSONAL
FLOTATION DEVICES.  LIFE JACKETS TODAY ARE MORE ATTRACTIVE IN
APPEARANCE AND MORE COMFORTABLE TO WEAR.  WHEN PROPERLY FITTED...THE
LIFE JACKET COULD PREVENT A TRAGEDY FOR BOTH THE WEARER AND THE
WEARER/S FAMILY.
 
MOST BOATERS THINK THAT A LIFE JACKET CLOSE AT HAND IS ALL THAT IS
REQUIRED IN AN EMERGENCY.  IF SOMETHING HAPPENS...SUCH AS A
CAPSIZING...PEOPLE THINK THEY WOULD BE ABLE TO PUT THE DEVICE ON IN
THE WATER AND SAVE THEMSELVES.  DOING SO IS NOT AS EASY AS IT SOUNDS.
 
YOU MAY WONDER HOW MANY LIFE JACKETS ARE NEEDED.  YOU ARE REQUIRED BY
FEDERAL REGULATION TO HAVE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD APPROVED PERSONAL
FLOTATION DEVICES ON YOUR RECREATIONAL BOAT FOR EACH PERSON ON BOARD.
HOW MANY AND WHAT TYPE OF PERSONAL FLOTATION DEVICES YOU WILL NEED
DEPENDS ON THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE ON BOARD...THE SIZE AND TYPE OF YOUR
BOAT...AND THE KIND OF BOATING YOU DO.  IF YOUR BOAT IS 16 FEET OR
LONGER...EXCLUDING CANOES AND KAYAKS...YOU MUST HAVE AT LEAST ONE
THROWABLE DEVICE WHICH IS CLASSIFIED AS A TYPE 4 PERSONAL FLOTATION
DEVICE.
  
FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF PERSONAL FLOTATION
DEVICES OR IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS ON BOATING SAFETY...PLEASE CONTACT THE
UNITED STATES COAST GUARD INFOLINE AT 1-800-368-5647.  BE SURE TO STAY
TUNED TO NOAA WEATHER RADIO THROUGHOUT THE WEEK FOR MORE INFORMATION ON
HOW YOU CAN MAKE BOATING FUN AND ENJOYABLE WITH SAFETY IN MIND.
 
LOMBARDY
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE SAN JUAN PR
830 AM AST TUE MAY 19 1998
 
...THIS WEEK IS DESIGNATED AS NATIONAL SAFE BOATING WEEK...
 
SMART BOATING BEGINS WITH MAKING SAFETY THE FIRST PRIORITY OF EVERY
PILOT AND PASSENGER.  AWARENESS IS A BIG KEY IN HELPING TO SAVE LIVES
AND PROPERTY.  IT HELPS PEOPLE TO MAKE INTELLIGENT DECISIONS AND TO
TAKE ACTIONS BEFORE CONDITIONS CLOSE IN.  THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE
WILL AID IN AWARENESS THIS WEEK BY ISSUING DAILY PUBLIC INFORMATION
STATEMENTS ON SAFE BOATING.
 
TODAYS TOPIC IS BOATER EDUCATION...
 
SMART BOATERS HAVE MORE FUN.  WHATEVER YOU DO ON THE WATER ...
FISHING...HUNTING...CRUISING...PICNICKING...OR WATERSKIING... YOU WILL
GET MORE OUT OF IT IF YOU PUT A LITTLE MORE INTO IT.  FREE COURSES ARE
AVAILABLE TO HELP YOU KNOW BEFORE YOU GO. THE NATIONAL SAFE BOATING
COUNCIL SAYS YOU WILL ENJOY THE WATER MORE IF YOU ARE CONFIDENT IN
WHAT YOU ARE DOING AND YOU WILL BE SAFER TOO. THE NATIONAL SAFE
BOATING COUNCIL WELCOMES YOU TO A FREE BOATING COURSE NEAR YOUR
HOME.  CALL 1-800-336-BOAT FOR THE TIME AND PLACE.
 
REMEMBER "BOAT SMART FROM THE START. WEAR YOUR LIFE JACKET!".
 
RM
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DETROIT/PONTIAC MI
730 AM EDT TUE MAY 19 1998
 
...MAY 16TH THROUGH THE 22ND IS NATIONAL SAFE BOATING WEEK...
 
MAY 16TH THROUGH THE 22ND IS NATIONAL SAFE BOATING WEEK.  WEATHER
CAN MAKE FOR AN ENJOYABLE BOATING EXPERIENCE... ALTHOUGH THE
SUDDEN EMERGENCE OF DARK CLOUDS...GUSTY WINDS... AND LIGHTNING CAN
TURN A DAYS PLEASURE INTO A TIME OF DISTRESS.  DURING NATIONAL SAFE
BOATING WEEK... THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE WILL GIVE SOME TIPS... AS
PREPARED BY THE NATIONAL SAFE BOATING COUNCIL... ON HOW TO KEEP YOUR
PLEASURE AND SAFETY TO A MAXIMUM.
 
THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE ADVISES OBTAINING THE LATEST
AVAILABLE WEATHER FORECASTS AND WARNINGS FOR YOUR BOATING AREA.
THE NOAA WEATHER RADIO CONTINUOUS VHF BROADCASTS ARE THE BEST
WAY TO KEEP INFORMED OF EXPECTED WEATHER AND SEA CONDTIONS.
 
CONTINUOUS WEATHER BROADCASTS CAN BE HEARD IN THE STATE OF
MICHIGAN AND THE SURROUNDING GREAT LAKES FROM THE FOLLOWING
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE RADIO STATIONS...
 
CITY             STATION ID          FREQUENCY (MHZ)
 
HOUGHTON           WXK73               162.40
MARQUETTE          KIG66               162.55
SAULT STE. MARIE   KIG74               162.55
ALPENA             KIG83               162.55
TRAVERSE CITY      KIH22               162.40
HESPERIA           WWF-36              162.475
GAYLORD            WWF-70              162.50
GRAND RAPIDS       KIG63               162.55
KALAMAZOO          WWF-34              162.475
SOUTH BEND         WXJ57               162.40
LANSING            WXK81               162.40
FLINT              KIH29               162.475
DETROIT            KEC63               162.55
 
BOATING FUN IS FOR EVERYONE. BOATING SAFETY IS EVERY BOATERS
RESPONSIBILITY.  KNOW YOUR BOAT... THE BOATING RULES... THE
BOATING WATER... AND WHAT TO DO IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF WEATHER
SITUATIONS.  KEEP THE PROPER BOATING AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT
ON BOARD.  LISTEN TO THE LOCAL NOAA WEATHER RADIO TO GET THE
LATEST FORECASTS AND WARNINGS. BE COURTEOUS TO THE OTHER BOATERS
AND HELP BOATERS IN TROUBLE.  THIS IS A REMINDER FROM THE
NATIONAL SAFE BOATING COUNCIL AND THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE.
LET EVERY DAY BE A SAFE BOATING DAY.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE BINGHAMTON NY
1043 AM EDT FRI MAY 22 1998
 
...1998 NATIONAL SAFE BOATING WEEK...
 
NATIONAL SAFE BOATING WEEK CONTINUES WITH A FEW WORDS ON THE SAFE
OPERATION OF PERSONAL WATER CRAFT.
 
TO REINFORCE SAFE...APPROPRIATE...AND COURTEOUS OPERATION OF PERSONAL
WATER CRAFT...THE INDUSTRY HELPED DEVELOP AND HAS SUPPORTED REASONABLE
BOATING REGULATIONS.  AT LEAST TWENTY-SIX STATES HAVE BASED PERSONAL
WATER CRAFT LAWS ON THE PERSONAL WATER CRAFT MODEL SAFETY ACT DEVELOPED
AND ENDORSED BY THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SAFE BOATING LAW
ADMINISTRATORS.  THIS ACT ADDRESSES A MINIMUM OPERATOR AGE OF
SIXTEEN...PROHIBITS NIGHT TIME AND RECKLESS OPERATION...REQUIRES ALL
OPERATORS AND PASSENGERS TO WEAR U.S. COAST GUARD APPROVED LIFE
JACKETS...AND REQUIRES OPERATORS TO USE A LANYARD STOP SWITCH FOR BOATS
SO EQUIPPED.
 
ACCIDENT STATISTICS HAVE IDENTIFIED ADDITIONAL ITEMS TO BE ADDRESSED
THROUGH A COMBINATION OF EDUCATION...PUBLIC AWARENESS AND POSSIBLE
MANUFACTURING CHANGES.  SOME OF THESE ITEMS INCLUDE A BETTER
UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATOR/S RESPONSIBILITY BY SOME PERSONAL WATER
CRAFT RIDERS...ESPECIALLY RENTERS AND NON-OWNER OPERATORS.  THE TUNNEL
VISION SYNDROME OCCURS WHEN THE RIDER FAILS TO LOOK AROUND BEFORE
TURNING.  ANOTHER MAJOR CONCERN IS OFF THROTTLE STEERING ACCIDENTS
WHICH RESULT IN THE NEED TO USE THE THROTTLE TO TURN THE MACHINE AWAY
FROM DANGER.
 
AS PERSONAL WATER CRAFT CONTINUE TO EVOLVE WITH HIGHER HORSE POWER AND
FASTER SPEED...INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY IS PLAYING A ROLE IN SHAPING THE
FUTURE OF THE SPORT.  THE U.S. COAST GUARD HAS SOLICITED GRANT
PROPOSALS TO STUDY THE USE OF RUDDER OR OTHER TECHNOLOGY RELATING TO
STEERING CHARACTERISTICS.  WORK IS BEING DONE TO ADDRESS NOISE
FREQUENCY.  NOISE IS A COMMON CAUSE FOR COMPLAINT BY NON-USERS. LAWS
ARE BEING ENFORCED TO ADDRESS UNSAFE OPERATING PATTERNS SUCH AS
RECKLESS OPERATION WHICH INCLUDES WAKE JUMPING TOO CLOSE BEHIND LARGER
VESSELS.  REQUIRED COMPLETION OF A BOATER EDUCATION COURSE PRIOR TO
OPERATION HAS BEEN MANDATED IN MANY STATES.
 
THERE IS MUCH LEFT TO KNOW ABOUT THE SPORT OF PERSONAL WATER CRAFT
OPERATION.  CONTINUED VIGILANCE AND ATTENTION TO THE LESSONS LEARNED
FROM PAST ACCIDENTS WILL HELP ENSURE SAFE GROWTH OF THIS POPULAR AND
ENJOYABLE FORM OF BOATING.
  
IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS ON BOATING SAFETY...PLEASE CONTACT THE UNITED
STATES COAST GUARD INFOLINE AT 1-800-368-5647.  BE SURE TO STAY TUNED
TO NOAA WEATHER RADIO THROUGHOUT THE WEEKEND FOR MORE INFORMATION ON
HOW YOU CAN MAKE BOATING FUN AND ENJOYABLE WITH SAFETY IN MIND.
  
LOMBARDY

Precip Intensity Estimation

Estimating the Intensity of Precipitation

Rain or Freezing Rain
————————-

Light: From scattered drops that, regardless of duration, do not completely wet an exposed surface up to a condition where individual drops are easily seen.

Moderate: Individual drops are not clearly identifiable; spray is observed just above pavements and other hard surfaces.

Heavy: Rain seemingly falls in sheets; individuals drops are not identifiable; heavy spray to a height of several inches is observed over hard surfaces.

Ice pellets
———–

Light: Scattered pellets that do not completely cover an exposed surface regardless of duration. Visibility is not affected.

Moderate: Slow accumulation on ground. Visibility is reduced by ice pellets to less than 7 miles.

Heavy: Rapid accumulation on ground. Visibility is reduced by ice pellets to less than 3 miles.

Snow or Drizzle
—————–

Light: Visibility greater than 1/2 mile.

Moderate: Visibility greater than 1/4 mile but equal to or less than 1/2 mile.

Heavy: Visbility less than or equal to 1/4 mile.

(Note: When estimating precipitation intensity using visibility criteria, remember that other obstructions could be present (ex. fog, haze, etc.)

 

Beaufort Scale

THE BEAUFORT WIND SCALE
One of the first scales to estimate wind speeds and the effects was created by Britian’s Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort
(1774-1857). He developed the scale in 1805 to help sailors estimate the winds via visual observations. The scale
starts with 0 and goes to a force of 12. The Beaufort scale is still used today to measure wind strengths at seas and
also has received informal acceptance as a measure for the effects of land winds of various speeds.

FORCE
MPH
KNOTS
DESCRIPTION VISUAL DESCRIPTION
0
0-1
0-1
Calm Smoke rises vertically
1
1-3
1-3
Light Air Smoke drifts slowly
2
4-7
4-6
Slight Breeze Leaves rustle
3
8-12
7-10
Gentle Breeze Leaves/twigs in motion
4
13-18
11-16
Moderate Breeze Small branches move
5
19-24
17-21
Fresh Breeze Small trees sway
6
25-31
22-27
Strong Breeze Large branches sway
7
32-38
28-33
Moderate Gale Whole trees in motion
8
39-46
34-40
Fresh Gale Twigs break off trees
9
47-54
41-47
Strong Gale Branches break
10
55-63
48-55
Whole Gale Trees break, blow down
11
64-72
56-63
Storm Widespread damage
12
73+
64+
Hurricane Extreme damage

Conversion Tables

   CONVERSION FORMULAS                    -------------------------
 
  This is a file with some basic conversion formulas.
 
  1. Degrees Celsius:  F= Degrees Fahrenheit
 
     Degrees Celcius = (F - 32) * 5 / 9
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
  2. Degrees Fahrenheit:  C = Degrees Celcius
 
     Degrees Fahrenheit = (C * 9 / 5) + 32
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
  3. Millibars:
 
     Millibars(mb) = Inches / .02953
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
  4. Inches(hg): 
   
     Inches = Millbars * .02953
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
  5. Knots:  W = wind speed in MPH (miles per hour)
 
     Knots = W / 1.15
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
  6. MPH:   K = wind speed in knots  
   
     MPH = K * 1.15
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
  7. Dewpoint:   F = Degrees Fahrenheit:  RH = relative humidity 

     T = (F - 32 ) * 5 / 9     
     X = 1 - (.01 * rh)       
     TD = T - (14.55 + .114 * T) * X - (( 2.5 + .007 * T) * X) ^ 3 - (15.9 +  
     .117 * T) * X ^ 14 
     Dewpoint = (TD * 9 / 5) = 32
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
  8. Humidity:    T = Degrees Fahrenheit:   D = Dewpoint   
  
     TD = (5 / 9) * (D - 32)   
     A = 7.567
     B = 239.7
     C = 6.11
     X = (A * TD) / (B + TD)
     E = C * 10 ^ X 
     TC = (5 / 9) * (T - 32)
     XC = (A * TC ) / (B + TC) 
     ES = C * 10 ^ XC 
     Humidity = 100 * (E / Es)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 9. Wind Chill:  T = Degrees Fahrenheit:  W = wind speed (MPH) 

    X = .303439 * sqr(W) - .0202886 * W 
    Wind Chill = (91.9 - (91.4 - T) * (X + .474266))
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
10. Heat Index:  T = Degrees Fahrenheit:  RH =  Humidity 

   Heat Index = -42.379 + 2.04901523 * T + 10.14333127 * RH - 0.22475541 * T
    * RH - 6.83783 * 10 ^ -3 * T ^ 2 -5481717 * 10 ^ -2 * RH ^ 2 + 1.22874 
    * 10 ^ -3 * T ^ 2 * Rh + 8.5282 * 10 ^ -4 * T * RH ^ 2 -1.99 * 10 ^ -6 * T
    ^ 2 * RH ^ 2 
----------------------------------------------------------------------

 Source:
 Mike Murphy  WWOL- Public relations officer
 72524,[email protected]

Mb (hPa) to Inches hg

 

Florida Forecast Zones

Florida Weather Forecast Zones
Forecasts by
NWS Mobile, Alabama
Forecasts by
NWS Tallahassee
FLZ001
FLZ002
FLZ003
FLZ004
FLZ005
FLZ006
Escambia – inland
Escambia – coastal
Santa Rosa – inland
Santa Rosa – coastal
Okaloosa – inland
Okaloosa – coastal
FLZ007
FLZ008
FLZ009
FLZ010
FLZ011
FLZ012
FLZ013
FLZ014
FLZ015
FLZ016
FLZ017
FLZ018
FLZ019
FLZ026
FLZ027
FLZ028
FLZ029
FLZ034
Walton – inland
Walton – coastal
Holmes
Washington
Jackson
Bay
Calhoun
Gulf
Franklin
Gadsden
Leon
Jefferson
Madison
Liberty
Wakulla
Taylor
Lafayette
Dixie
Forecasts by
NWS Jacksonville
Forecasts by
NWS Tampa Bay
FLZ020
FLZ021
FLZ022
FLZ023
FLZ024
FLZ025
FLZ030
FLZ031
FLZ032
FLZ033
FLZ035
FLZ036
FLZ037
FLZ038
FLZ040
Hamilton
Suwannee
Columbia
Baker
Nassau
Duval
Union
Bradford
Clay
St. Johns
Gulchrist
Alachua
Putnam
Flagler
Marion
FLZ039
FLZ042
FLZ043
FLZ048
FLZ049
FLZ050
FLZ051
FLZ052
FLZ055
FLZ056
FLZ057
FLZ060
FLZ061
FLZ062
FLZ065
Levy
Citrus
Sumter
Hernando
Pasco
Pinellas
Hillsborough
Polk
Manatee
Hardee
Highlands
Sarasota
DeSoto
Charlotte
Lee
Forecasts by
NWS Melbourne
Forecasts by
NWS Miami
FLZ041
FLZ044
FLZ045
FLZ046
FLZ047
FLZ053
FLZ054
FLZ058
FLZ059
FLZ064
Volusia
Lake
Orange
Seminole
Brevard
Osceola
Indian River
Okeechobee
St. Lucie
Martin
FLZ063
FLZ066
FLZ067
FLZ068
FLZ069
FLZ070
FLZ071
FLZ072
FLZ073
FLZ074
FLZ075
FLZ076
FLZ077
FLZ078
Glades
Hendry
Palm Beach – inland
Palm Beach – metro
Collier – coastal
Collier – inland
Broward – inland
Broward – metro
Miami-Dade – inland
Miami-Dade – metro
Monroe – mainland
Monroe – upper Keys
Monroe – middle Keys
Monroe – lower Keys

Heat Index

     HEAT INDEX CHART

                        AIR TEMPERATURE (F)

        70  75  80  85  90  95  100 105 110  115  120  125  130

    0   64  69  73  78  83  87  91  95  99   103  107  111  117
    5   64  69  74  79  84  88  93  97  102  107  111  116  122
R   10  65  70  75  80  85  90  95  100 105  111  116  123  131
E   15  65  71  76  81  86  91  97  102 108  115  123  131
L   20  66  72  77  82  87  93  99  105 112  120  130  141
A   25  66  72  77  83  88  94  101 109 117  127  139
T   30  67  73  78  84  90  96  104 113 123  135  148
I   35  67  73  79  85  91  98  107 118 130  143
V   40  68  74  79  86  93  101 110 123 137  151
E   45  68  74  80  87  95  104 115 129 143
    50  69  75  81  88  96  107 120 135 150
H   55  69  75  81  89  98  110 126 142
U   60  70  76  82  90  100 114 132 149
M   65  70  76  83  91  102 119 138
I   70  70  77  85  93  106 124 144
D   75  70  77  86  95  109 130
I   80  71  78  86  97  113 136
T   85  71  78  87  99  117
Y   90  71  79  88  102 122
    95  71  79  89  105
(%) 100 72  80  91  108

Another way to determine the heat index is by using the air temperature and the dew point…

                           DEW POINT (F)
          35   40   45   50   55   60   65   70   75   80   85
AIR        
TEMP (F)
  75      74   75   76   77   77   78   78   79   80
  80      77   78   78   79   80   81   82   84   86   90
  85      81   81   82   83   84   86   87   90   93   98  106
  90      85   85   86   87   89   91   93   96  101  107  115
  95      89   90   91   92   94   96   99  103  108  115  124
 100      94   95   96   98  100  102  105  109  115  122  132
 105      99  100  101  103  105  107  111  116  122  129  139
 110     104  105  107  108  111  113  117  121  128  136  146
 115     109  110  111  113  116  118  123  128  134  141  153

The following equation approximates the heat index. There is a +-1.3 degree F error using this equation.

HI = -42.379 + 2.04901523*T + 10.14333127*R - 0.22475541*T*R
     - 0.00683783*T2 - 0.05481717*R2 + 0.00122874*T2*R
     + 0.00085282*T*R2 - 0.00000199*T2*R2

Where…

  T  -> Air Temperature
  T2 -> Air Temperature Squared
  R  -> Relative humidity
  R2 -> Relative Humidity squared
  *  -> Multiply (IE. 2*5 = 10)


APPARENT TEMPERATURE CHART 
 
                          AIR TEMPERATURE (Deg. F) 
 
                   85    90    95   100   105   110 
          \---------------------------------------- 
         20 |      82    87    93    99   105   112 
         30 |      84    90    96   104   113   123 
         40 |      86    93   101   110   123   137 
 HUMID.  50 |      88    96   107   120   135   150 
         60 |      90   100   114   132   149 
         70 |      93   106   124   144 
         80 |      97   113   130 
         90 |     102   122 
        100 |     108 
 
         CATEGORY        APP.TEMP.         HEAT SYMTOMS 
---------------------------------------------------------------- 
           I             >130 degrees      Heatstroke imminent 
           II            105 to 130 deg.   Sunstroke likely.. 
                                           heatstroke possible 
           III           90 to 105 deg.    Sunstroke possible.. 
           IV            80 to 90 deg.     Fatigue possible 
----------------------------------------------------------------

Thermodynamic Indices

Interpretation of the Thermodynamic Indices

WMO – the World Meteorological Origanization station number

LAT – Latitude (of the station)

LON – Longitude

EL – Energy Index
> 0 No activity expected
-2 to 0 Isolated severe thunderstorms
< -2 Severe thunderstorms probable, tornadoes possible

LCL – Lifted Condensation Level (height at which convective clouds will form)

PW – Precipitable Water (amount of precipitation in a vertical column if it was all precipitated out).

TH – Thickness from 1000mb – 500mb

K INDEX (KI)
——–

                   Thunderstorm Probability
< 15                            0 %
15 - 20                      < 20 %
21 - 25                   20 - 40 % 
26 - 30                   40 - 60 %
31 - 35                   60 - 80 %
36 - 40                   80 - 90 %
> 40                     Near 100 %

TOTAL TOTALS (TT): Type of Severe Weather
44 Isolated to few thunderstorms
46 Scattered thunderstorms – a few may be moderate
48 Scattered thunderstorms – a few may be moderate and isolated severe thunderstorms
50 Scattered moderate thunderstorms – a few may be severe and isolated tornadoes
52-58 Scattered to numerous moderate thunderstorms – scattered thunderstorms and a few tornadoes
60 Numerous moderate thunderstorms and scattered severe thunderstorms and tornadoes

SHOWALTER INDEX (SI)
< +4 Showers or possible thunderstorms
+1 to +2 Thundestorms
-3 to -6 Severe thunderstorms may occur
< -6 Severe thunderstorms and possible tornadoes

LIFTED INDEX (LI)
< +4 Showers and possible thunderstorms
0 to -3 Thunderstorms (may be severe in winter)
< -4 Severe thunderstorms (summer)

SWEAT INDEX (SW)
> 300 Severe thunderstorms may occur
> 400 Tornadoes may occur
Ultraviolet Index

THE ULTRAVIOLET INDEX

UV INDEX....
0        1        2    3        4    5        6    7        8        9    10+
|-----MINIMAL-----|    |--LOW---|    |MODERATE|    |-------HIGH------|    |VERY HIGH-->


                                  INTRODUCTION

In response to the increasing incidence of skin cancer, cataracts, and
other effects from exposure to the suns harmful rays, the National
Weather Service (NWS) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are
collaborating on a now sun awareness information program.

Central to this program is an Experimental Ultraviolet (UV) Index which
has been developed by the National Meteorological Center, a part of the
National Weather Service. The EPA Office of Research and Development
provided partial funding for the development of this Index.  The Index
is a next-day forecast of the likely exposure to ultraviolet radiation
for a particular location at noon.  This summer the NWS will issue the
Index as a daily product on a experimental pilot basis for a limited
number of cities.

"Be Sun Wise!" is a public information program supporting the UV Index.
Its goal is to inform individuals about how to use the Index to prevent
overexposure to the sun for themselves and others, especially children.

Several publications are being issued at the same time as this UV
Experimental Index is being announced. Information on how to obtain
these publications is given in the "For Additional Information" section
at the end of this publication.

- A publication, "Draft NOAA-EPA Program to Provide Experimental
Operational Forecast Guidance of an Index of UV Radiation at the
Ground", has been written for the NWS field staff and the professional
meteorological community.

- A brochure, Experimental Ultraviolet Index: "What You Want to Know",
in intended to explain the Index to the public. It is available in
quantity. 

- This publication, "The Experimental Ultraviolet Index Factsheet:
Explaining the index to the Public", provides information about how
these index values can be explained to the public. The primary
audiences for this factsheet are meteorologists, public health
officials, physicians, and other professionals who are likely to be
called upon to answer public inquiries about the Index or who can make
use of the Index to increase public awareness about the hazards of
overexposure to UV rays.

- A supplementary publication, "Technical Appendices to the
Experimental UV Index Factsheet", provides more indepth information
about the Index and how EPA has calculated the minutes to burn
associated with the different exposure levels. The primary audience
for that publication is professionals in the meteorological and medical
communities who want more technical information about these issues.

- A separate publication, "Bulletin of Sample Public health Messages
to Accompany the UV Index", provides a variety of public health action
messages that can be used when the index values are presented to the
public.


                              WHAT THE INDEX IS

Starting in the summer of 1994, the National Weather Service (NWS) and EPA
are offering a new product, the UV Experimental Index. It is being issued
daily on an experimental basis for use by meteorologists as part of their
weather report. The Index is a next day forecast of the amount of ultraviolet
radiation that will reach the earth's surface during the peak hour of
sunlight around noon. The Index includes the effects of cloud cover on the
anticipated UV exposure level for the next day.

The index is a number on a scale of 0-15. The NWS distributes this index
number for a selected number of cities across the country. It is sent out by
the NWS about 1:00 p.m. EDT each day to its field operations and the weather
forecasting community.

Table 1 below lists five exposure category descriptors (e.g.,, minimal, low,
moderate, high, very high) that can be used to explain the intensity of each
of the Index values.  A variety of public health messages for each exposure
category is suggested in the EPA publication, "Bulletin of Sample Public
Health Messages to accompany the Experimental UV Index".


                Table 1: Index Values and Exposure Categories

                   INDEX VALUES      EXPOSURE CATEGORY

                      0 - 2                Mininal
                      3 - 4                Low
                      5 - 6                Moderate
                      7 - 9                High
                      10 +                 Very High


                           THE EXPOSURE CATEGORIES

The exposure categories play a key role in the sun awareness public health
messages associated with the Index. EPA set the exposure categories based on
sunburning of fair-skinned persons because it provides an easy-to-understand
measure of immediate effects. This is a conservative approach, which in meant
to be protective of people who are less likely to sunburn but who are at risk
of the other longer-term health effects from UV exposure that do not depend
on skin type.

Some people with skin types will learn that they need to take more
precautions to protect themselves from sunburn that the exposure descriptors
would indicate; others will realize that they are not as sensitive and
therefore do not have to be so cautious.

What is important is that people of all skin types can use the index to help
them prevent diseases of the skin and eye that result from overexposure to UV
rays.


                    FACTORS AFFECTING INDIVIDUAL EXPOSURE

It is important that the public be educated on the factors that can affect UV
radiation so that the public make the best use of the Index. In some cases,
the factors that influence the noon time UV levels may change over the course
of a day or during a year at a given location. These factors may change as an
individual travels short or long distances from where the Index is given.

One of the most important factors is cloud cover.  Partly or variably cloudy
days do little to reduce UV exposure, However, rainy or substantially
overcast days will reduce UV exposures -- in some cases by 50 percent or
more. Furthermore, depending on the accuracy of the forecast of cloud cover
at noon and the change in cloud cover during the day, the forecast could
overstate or understate the actual UV intensity at certain times during the
day.

For example, if the forecast for the next day at noon is for overcast skies,
but the overcast conditions fail to occur or there are sunny skies at other
times of the day, people may take too few precautions and be overexposed. In
contrast, if clear sky conditions are forecast but the day turns cloudy, the
UV Index would overestimate the UV intensity and people may not need the
precautions they had planned.

Another important factor in determining the amount of exposure an individual
receives is the time of day spent in the sun. The Index is the predicted UV
exposure for the hour around noon. The earlier or later one goes out in the
sun, the more exposure will be reduced. The peak exposure time is 12:00 p.m.
Standard Time (ST) and 1:00 p.m. Daylight Savings Time (DST). In the
continental United States, the UV intensity is reduced by about half at three
hours before and three hours after the peak exposure time. For example, the
UV intensity at 10 a.m.  and 4 p.m. is half as strong as it is at 1:00 p.m.
DST.

The time of year also affects the amount of UV radiation reaching the earth's
surface. The greatest amount of UV is received in the late spring and early
summers much less is received in the late fall and early winter.

UV intensity also varies by latitude and altitude, with higher values
occurring as one gets closer to the equator or higher in elevation. smog
conditions can reduce UV intensity.

The role of reflective surfaces is also important in determining the amount
of exposure.  Water, sand, and snow all reflect UV rays and can intensify
exposure.

Lifestyle decisions can override other factors in determining a person's risk
from exposure to the sun.  People who work or play outdoors for long periods
of time are at greater risk of harmful effects from UV exposure.  Activities
such as skiing, sunbathing, or swimming can lead to extremely high exposures.
Use of tanning parlors also increase risk, because UV radiation from any
source contributes to long-term damage.


             UV RAYS AND HOW OVEREXPOSURE TO THEM CAN BE HARMFUL

Energy from the sun reaches the earth as visible, infrared, and ultraviolet
rays.  Ultraviolet A is made up of wavelengths 320 to 400 nanometers (nm) in
length; ultraviolet B wavelengths are 280 to 320 nm; and ultraviolet C
wavelengths are 100 to 280 nm. Because the earth's atmosphere absorbs the UVC
wavelengths, the only ultraviolet rays that reach the earth's surface are UVA
and UVB.

While a small amount of exposure to sunlight can be healthy and pleasurable,
too much can be dangerous. Exposure to UV rays is linked to a number of
harmful health effects.

"Skin cancer and other skin damage".  Some effects of sunlight on the skin
are visible within hours or days (e.g., sunburn and tanning); other effects
are delayed and cumulative and may be seen in months to years (e.g., skin
cancer and photoaging).

"Skin cancer".  The incidence of skin cancer cases is increasing rapidly.
Over 1,000,000 new cases of skin cancer are likely to be diagnosed in the
U.S.  this year.  Eighty percent of the UV exposure occurs before the age of
18 and the damage is cumulative over time.  UV radiation exposure is
implicated in the formation of non-melanoma and melanoma cancers.

"Premature aging".  Sun exposure also causes premature aging of the skin.
Photoaging of the skin is different than normal chronological aging.  Regular
sun bathers show photoaging changes early in life (before 30 years of age);
while chronologically aged skin shows changes later (after 40 or more years
of age).  Freckling, fine wrinkling, and dilatation of capillaries are often
seen early in the photoaging process; later on the photoaged skin develops
irregular pigmentation, often called liver spots.  Both photoaging and
chronological aging cause wrinkling and loss of skin elasticity; however,
they occur much earlier when the skin has been overexposed to the sun.

"Cataracts and other eye disorders".  Cataracts are a leading cause of
blindness worldwide.  UV exposure is one of the risk factors in the
development of cataracts.  Corneal sunburn, growths on the outer surface of
the eye, and other eye diseases are also known or suspected to be related to
long-term exposure to UV radiation.

"Immune System Damage".  The skin is part of the body's natural defense
system.  While there is such to be learned, it is clear that ultraviolet
radiation can alter immune functions.  When UV radiation suppresses immune
responses, it reduces the body's ability to fight off certain diseases,
including skin cancer.  Overexposure to UV radiation may also interfere with
the efficacy of immunizations administered through the skin.

UVB rays pose a much greater risk of skin cancer than UVA.  However, UVA rays
cause aging, wrinkling, loss of elasticity, and augment the damaging effects
of UVB, including skin cancer and cataracts.  The five exposure categories
include exposure to both UVA and UVB.

Common sense measures to prevent overexposure to sunlight can substantially
reduce the risks of cancers and aging of the skin, cataracts, and other
harmful effects.


   Range of Minutes to Burn for Different Index Values:

   EXPOSURE         MINUTES TO BURN FOR    MINUTES TO BURN FOR
   CATEGORIES/      "NEVER TANS"           "RARELY BURNS"
   INDEX VALUES     SKIN PHOTOTYPE         SKIN PHOTOTYPE
                    (most susceptible)     (least susceptible)

   Minimal   0 - 2  30 minutes             >120 minutes

   Low           3  20 minutes             90 minutes
                 4  15 minutes             75 minutes

   Moderate      5  12 minutes             60 minutes
                 6  10 minutes             50 minutes

   High          7  8.5 minutes            40 minutes
                 8  7.5 minutes            35 minutes
                 9  7 minutes              33 minutes

   Very High    10  6 minutes              30 minutes
                11  5.5 minutes            27 minutes
                12  5 minutes              25 minutes
                13  < 5 minutes            23 minutes
                14  4 minutes              21 minutes
                15  < 4 minutes            20 minutes


                      HOW PEOPLE SHOULD USE THE UV INDEX

EPA is collaborating with CDC in the initiation of a "Be Sun Wise!" public
education campaign to coincide with the release of the Index.  This campaign
is aimed at raising public awareness of the health risks of sun exposure.
The challenge is great because attitudes about the attractiveness of a
"healthy tan" are so firmly established.

Preventing skin cancer and other skin damage:

Because individual susceptibility to sunburn varies widely, each individual
should determine his or her own skin type.  Refer to "Table 2: Description of
Skin Phototypes" below.

The first stop in classifying an individuals skin type is to look at the
color of skin on parts of the body that have received the least amount of
exposure to the sun.  Lower legs just above the ankles, behind the knee, or
the inner side of the upper arm are possible places to use.  People should
not use the exposed skin on the face, neck, or arms (or chest for men)
because the color in these areas has been altered by past sun exposure.

Other factors including genetic history, age, number of previous severe
sunburns, and medical history are also important.  Individual determinations
about skin type should be made after careful consideration of all these
influences.  Hasty self-typing can result in actions which lead to
overexposure to the sun.


              Table 2: Description of Skin Phototypes

                     SKIN COLOR IN
SKIN PHOTOTYPES      UNEXPOSED AREA          TANNING HISTORY

Never Tans/          pale or milky white;    develops red sunburn;
Always Burns         alabaster               painful swelling; skin peels

Sometimes Tans/      very light brown;       usually burns; pinkish
Usually Burns        sometimes freckles      or red coloring appears;
                                             can gradually develop
                                             light brown tan

Usually Tans/        light tan, brown, or    infrequently burns;
Sometimes Burns      olive; distinctly       shows moderately
                     pigmented               rapid tanning response

Always Tans/         brown, dark brown,      rarely burns; shows
Rarely Burns         or black                very rapid tanning
                                             response

Even within the same skin type, people may burn at different rates.
Individuals should decide if they are more or less sensitive to sun exposure
and take protective actions accordingly.

The American Academy of Dermatology and the Skin Cancer Foundation recommend
the following actions to reduce the chance of both sunburn and skin cancer:

- Minimize sun exposure at midday (10:00 a.m. to 3:00 P.M.)

- Apply a sunscreen with SPF-15 or higher to all exposed areas of the body.

- Reapply sunscreen every two hours, even on cloudy days.  Also, reapply
  after swimming or perspiring.

- Wear clothing that covers the body and shades the face.

- Avoid unnecessary exposure to radiation through sunlamps or tanning
  parlors.

- Protect children by keeping them from excessive sun during the hours of
  strongest sunlight and by applying sunscreen liberally and frequently to
  children older than 6 months of age.  (Because sunscreen should not be used
  on children under 6 months, their sun exposure should be severely limited.)

Preventing cataracts and other eye diseases:

Unlike individual susceptibility to sunburn and cancer, susceptibility to eye
damage from UV may well be similar for all types of people.

The National Society to Prevent Blindness, the American Optometric
Association, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology recommend the
following actions to prevent eye damage from UV radiation:

- Wear sunglasses consistently when outside during the sunlight hours.
  Wearing regular glasses also affords some measure of protection against UV
  rays.

- Wear broad-brimmed hats to shade the eyes. (Hats that shade the back of the
  neck also protect the skin.)

Choose sunglasses carefully. Sunglasses should absorb 99-100 percent of the
full UV spectrum.  Because there is now no uniform labeling of sunglasses,
people should read labels carefully to be sure that the lenses will absorb
both UVA and UVB light.  They should be wary of claims that sunglasses
"'block harmful UV light" without saying how much and claims of "protection",
instead of "blockage" or "absorption"


                  WHAT ROLE DOES OZONE LAYER DEPLETION PLAY?

The stratospheric ozone layer shields the earth from the sun's harmful
ultraviolet rays.  It is well established that decreases in the stratospheric
ozone far above us can lead to increases in UV at the surface.  Ozone changes
from day to day and place to place.

Long-term decreases in the average amount of ozone have been measured over
the past decade.  A better monitoring network is necessary to demonstrate
whether there has been a corresponding change in UV radiation in the United
States.  Future levels of ozone and UV will depend upon a combination of
natural and manmade factors, including CFCs.

Experts agree that increased exposure to harmful rays can contribute to long
term increases in skin cancer and cataracts, and harm animals and plants. It
is likely that current rising rates of skin cancer are related to the
increasing emphasis on outdoor leisure and work in our society.  Whatever the
source of risk, it is important to protect yourself and your family from
overexposure to harmful UV rays.


                          HOW THE INDEX IS CALCULATED

The forecast methodology relies on the relationship between solar angle, total
column ozone, cloud cover, elevation, and UV radiation.

First, projected next-day ozone values are calculated.  To do this,
measurements of total  column ozone for yesterday taken by NOAA satellites are
used as inputs.  This data is modified based on projected changes in various
meteorological fields (i.e., circulation and temperature at specified
altitudes) for tomorrow.  The resulting forecast is for tomorrow's ozone
values.

Second, calculations of the peak amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the
earth's surface under clear sky conditions are made.  Using these projected
ozone values as an input, a radiative transfer model calculates the amount of
ultraviolet radiation that could reach the earth's surface at solar noon.
(Local solar noon is at 12:00 Standard Time or 1:00 Daylight Savings Time.)
This information yields the maximum amount of exposure possible at a location.

Third, a weighting function is applied to match the performance
characteristics of the surface-based observing systems.  This value
is used in later calculations as a dose rate.

Fourth, the results are then integrated over the solar noon hour to provide a
maximum solar noon clear sky exposure. (Solar noon hour extends from one half
hour before solar noon to one half hour after solar noon.) The results from
this calculation, which are expressed in hectoJoules per square meter
(hectoJ/m2), typically fall into a range between 0-15.

Fifth, the noon time dosage is then further modified by a factor to account
for the presence of clouds in the forecast.  This factor, which ranges from
1.0 to 0.31, is determined by an equation which uses the forecasted
probabilities of clear skies, scattered clouds, and broken clouds as inputs.
The equation is derived from statistical comparisons of the forecasted
probabilities and the ratio of the observed and computed clear sky UV levels
for multiple sites at different geographic/climatic locations within the
United States.  The final number is then disseminated as the forecasted
Experimental UV Index.

To make this Index a useful public information tool, the Environmental
Protection Agency has developed exposure level categories (e.g., minimal, low
moderate, high, and very high).

In addition, EPA has issued a publication with illustrative public health
messages for each of the five categories. (See publication, Bulletin of Sample
Public Heath Messages to Accompany Experimental UV Index.) In particular,
these messages are being made available for use by broadcast meteorologists,
if they so choose.  It is hoped that wide distribution of these messages will
help the public better interpret the Index and will encourage people to take
preventive steps to reduce the risks of overexposure.


   Selected cities for Experimental Ultraviolet Index:

   Anchorage, AK                Billings, MT
   Mobile, AL                   Raleigh, NC
   Little Rock, AR              Bismarck, ND
   Phoenix, AZ                  Omaha, NE
   Los Angeles, CA              Concord, NH
   San Francisco, CA            Atlantic City, NJ
   Denver, CO                   Albuquerque, NM
   Hartford, CT                 Las Vegas, NV
   Washington, DC               Buffalo, NY
   Dover, DE                    New York, NY
   Jacksonville, FL             Oklahoma City, OK
   Miami, FL                    Cleveland, OH
   Tampa, FL                    Portland, OR
   Atlanta, GA                  Philadelphia, PA
   Honolulu, IH                 Pittsburgh, PA
   Des Moines, IA               San Juan, PR
   Boise, ID                    Providence, RI
   Chicago, IL                  Charleston, SC
   Indianapolis, IN             Sioux Falls, SD
   Wichita, KS                  Memphis, TN
   Louisville, KY               Dallas, TX
   New Orleans, LA              Houston, TX
   Boston, MA                   Salt Lake City, UT
   Baltimore, MD                Burlington, VT
   Portland, ME                 Norfolk, VA
   Detroit, MI                  Seattle, WA
   Minneapolis, MN              Milwaukee, WI
   St. Louis, MO                Charleston, WV
   Jackson, MS                  Cheyenne, WY


                           Q & A for Meteorologists

This document is intended to help meteorologisis answer basic questions about
the experimental UV Index, the new product from the National Weather Service
(NWS).  This information may help you field the many important concerns and
questions the public may have.

        What is the experimental UV index?

The experimental UV Index adjusts solar radiation by a number of atmospheric
effects to forecast UV exposure levels in major cities around the country.
For the first year, the UV Index will be released on a limited experimental
basis.

        How do clouds affect predicted levels of UV radiation?

The effect of clouds on UV levels depends on the degree of cloudiness.
Although thick overcast will reduce ultraviolet, thin overcast scattered
clouds may not reduce UV levels.  As with any forecast, local variability may
change actual levels experienced.  For this reason, a useful rule of thumb to
offer your audience is that, whatever the day's prediction, they should
protect themselves against overexposure to sunlight whenever they can see
their shadow when outdoors.

       How does the forecast consider altitude?

UV levels increase with altitude because there's less atmosphere to attenuate
the radiation.  This factor is considered in the forecast for specific cities.
In general, UV levels rise 2% for every 1,000 foot rise in altitude or 1 index
unit for every 4 thousand feet in summer.

        How do reflective surfaces affect the predicted index level?

Snow, sand and water are all reflective surfaces and will intensify UV
exposure to varying degrees.  Grass reflects from 2.5-3%, sand 20-30%, snow
and ice 80-90%.  Depending on the angle of reflection, water can reflect up to
100% of rays off the surface.  Seasonally appropriate messages may help people
be aware that, for example, sand and water at beaches can increase the
reported level considerably.

           How much do UV levels vary by season?

Seasonal variability can be quite high.  Late spring to summer typically
produces the highest UV levels, while in the early winter, levels are lower.

           If I go on vacation in the Bahamas, how much more UV can I expect
           to be exposed to?

Generally speaking, the closer you are to the equator, the higher will be the
level of UV you will be exposed to.  Because you may not be used to such high
levels, it makes particularly good sense to cover exposed areas and wear
sunglasses on vacation.  Even during the winter, you can be badly sunburned at
lower latitudes.

           What affect does the ozone layer have on reported UV levels?

It is well known that atmospheric ozone decreases the amount of incident UV.
However, the exact impact of ozone depletion, or other local effects,
including haze, aerosols, etc., is not yet fully understood.


                          FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

ORGANIZATIONS

Federal Agencies:

The following federal agencies have information on the UV Index or related
issues, including skin cancer and ozone depletion.  Public inquiry telephone
numbers are provided where available.

NOAA/National Weather Service
National Meteorological Center
Washington, DC 20233
301-713-0622
(for information an Experimental UV Index)

Be Sun Wise! Program
U.S. EPA
401 M Street SW (6205J)
Washington, DC 20460
(for information on Index and health messages)

EPA Stratospheric Ozone Information Hotline
1-800-296-1996

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Division of cancer Prevention and Control
4770 Buford Highway NE,
Mailstop K-57
Atlanta, GA 30341-3724
(for information on public education about skin cancer)

Cancer Information Service
National Cancer institute
1-800-4-CANCER
(for information on skin cancer)

Private Sector:

American Academy of Dermatology
930 North Meacham Road
P.O. Box 681069
Schaumburg, IL 60168-4014

American Academy of Ophthalmology
Public Inquiries Unit
P.O. Box 7424
San Francisco, CA 94120-7424

American Cancer Society
1-800-ACS-2345

American Optometric Association
243 N. Lindbergh Blvd
St. Louis, MO 63141

Skin Cancer Foundation
245 Fifth Avenue
New York, NY 10016
212-725-5I76

Prevent Blindness America
500 East Remington Road
Schaumberg, IL 60173-5611
1-800-331-2020

In addition, you may also find helpful information by calling or writing
health care providers in your own community, including local medical
societies.  Also talk with your own personal physician.

PUBLICATIONS

Brochures:

The following brochures or flyers provide information on the Index and
related issues.  See above for addresses (and public inquiry telephone
numbers where available).

American Academy of Dermatology. "Melanoma/Skin Cancer". 1993.

American Association of Ophthalmology. "Sunglasses".  1993.

American Association of Ophthalmology. "The Ocular Hazards of UV Exposure".
1993.

EPA, NWS, CDC (in collaboration with many other organizations).
"Experimental Ultraviolet Index: What You Want to Know". 1994.

EPA. "Technical Appendices to the Experimental UV Index Factsheet". 1994.

EPA. "Bulletin of Sample Health Messages to accompany the Experimental UV
Index". 1994.

EPA. "Experimental UV Index Qs & As for Meteorologists". 1994.

EPA. "Protecting the Ozone Layer: A Citizen's Checklist".  1994.

National Cancer Institute/NIH.
"What You Need to Know About Skin Cancer".  1992.

NWS. "Draft NOAA-EPA Program to Provide Experimental Operational Forecast
Guidance of an index of UV Radiation at the Ground". 1994.

Prevent Blindness America. "UV: A Hazard to Sight". 1994.

Other Books and References:

Robins, Perry. "Sun Sense: A Complete Guide to Prevention, Early Detection,
Treatment of Skin Cancer".  The Skin Cancer Foundation. 1990.

Tilton, Buck and Roger Cox. "Ozone, UV and Your Health: 50 Ways to Save Your
Skin". ICS Books, Inc. Merrillville, Indiana. 1994.

French Ultraviolet Index

RELEASE
 
06.01.1995
 
SECURITE SOLAIRE
Fondation Rothschild   25, rue Manin  75019 Paris FRANCE
Office : 5, rue Danton 93170 Bagnolet FRANCE	Tel 33.1 48 97 16 97
Fax 33.1 48 97 07 10
 
CompuServe USER ID : 100552,[email protected]
 
 
France too cannot escape from these worldwide deadly statistics, a
yearly 5% increase in skin cancer. The french population does not seem
to have fully grasped the seriousness of the problem and of children
sensitivity in particular. Despite numerous awareness campaigns, 12% of
the French still believe that sunburns in the childhood help prepare
the skin to future sun exposures and 28% think sunburns do not lead to
any future skin problems.
 
Just like Canada and the U.S.A did in the past, France is now
implementing a ground based UV measurement and forecast program through
the nonprofit Association Securite Solaire led by Mr Jean-Pierre
CESARINI, M.D. This program is run in association with the national
weather service METEO FRANCE and is supported by the Ministery of
Health and based on the global UV index (W.H.O., W.M.O). 
 
In 1994, a first experiment was conducted in the twelve million
inhabitant Paris area in order to test the measurement equipment (UV
Biometer 501 Solar Light Inc.) as well as public and media response. 
 
 
From 21st june 1995 onwards
 
Four UV sensors will be  installed (one in Paris and three in the main
touristic places of southern France) and the UV forecast program will
cover all shores of France, the Paris area and the Midi-Pyrenees
region. The forecasts will be published by regional daily newspapers,
and broadcast by the public TV channels on morning shows and the
newcoming Meteo Cable Channel, and by numerous local radio stations.
Further the UV datas will be available on the hour on the Minitel
network : 3615 Coup de Soleil, 2.19 Frs/minute (coup de soleil means
sunburn) - the Minitel network is connected to 6 million terminals. 
 
 
The next two years :
 
The forecast device should be covering the entire french territory and
12 extra sensors, to reach a total of 16, shall be installed.
 
Partnership :
The Association Securite Solaire is financially supported by the french
government, by the regional authorities and by a group of private
companies which share our objectives of informing and educating the
public. For now, our private sponsors are : AVENE,  CLARINS, ESSILOR,
RoC.
 
 
Material available :
A 1995 press kit in french, contents :
 
	- public health and UV : a growing concern
	- what is Meteo Solaire : organization, geographic covering and
          broadcast
	- Securite Solaire and audiovisual educative programs
	- 3615 Coup de Soleil (Minitel network)
	- An interview with JP CESARINI, M.D.
	- Meteo Solaire and its partners.
 
Additionals :	TV, press and radio extracts of Meteo Solaire
                forecasts. 
		Audiovisual educative programs.
 
 
for more informations download : French Range of UV Index, Exposure
Categories, minutes to Burn and our recommandations  
 
Should you need any further information, please contact Pierre
CESARINI, General.Manager  Securite Solaire, 5 rue Danton,  93170
Bagnolet,  FRANCE tel. : (33.1) 48.97.16.97.
fax : (33.1) 48.97.07.10. 
 
CompuServe USER ID : 100552,[email protected]

Weather Radio Freqs.